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Thoracoscopy, also called Pleuroscopy, it is a medical procedure in which a flexible viewing tube called thoracoscope or the pleuroscope is inserted into the patients chest . When the thoracoscope is inserted via the chest, 1 to 2 small cuts (incisions) are made on the side of the chest between the  ribs and through the chest wall. The instrument is inserted through one of the incisions into the chest cavity. In case of the procedure is used to remove small lung tumours, the other incisions are used to put surgical instruments into the chest. General anesthesia or conscious sedation is given to the patient in order to avoid discomfort to the patient.

Thoracoscopy is commonly used in order to diagnose the problems within the chest cavity, such as Lung Cancer, Mesothelioma , Tuberculosis etc . But it can be used for other chest diseases as well.

The procedure can be used to examine and get tissue samples from the linings of the lungs (parietal and visceral pleura), pleural spaces, chest wall, space in the chest between the lungs (mediastinum) and membrane that surround the heart (pericardium).

Apart from diagnosis, the procedures can be done in order to remove small lung tumours, drain fluid or pus from the pleura or lung and put medicines or other treatments directly into the lung.